At present, almost all countries across the world are facing one or another form of threats resulting from migratory movements, cyber terrorism, environmental degradation, attacks from the terrorist groups, the outbreak of contagious diseases, ethnic, racial or religious conflicts, abject poverty, inequality etc. These threats are different from the ones generated by inter-state rivalries and conflicts in the past. Nepal is also influenced by insurgency, poverty, education, unemployment and health problem including aforementioned challenges. Nepal is suffering from numerous security threats like demands of identity politics raised by ethnic and regional groups, extremism, corruption, transit hub of the narcotics, increasing culture of violence, crime and disregard to law and order, human trafficking, the politicization of government institutions and criminalization of politics. Apart from these challenges piracy, information security related issues, environmental security related challenges and different kinds of crises that vary from flood to earthquake to landslides are also critical problems on rising.
Additionally, in external front, Nepal is no exception to global challenges of non-traditional security.
Global challenges of non-traditional security are no exception for developed countries. The huge expansion of migration of people from rural to urban cities at the global level has change patterns of trans-boundary activities. At the same time, terrorism has been seen as manifold and devastating impacts in underdeveloped societies.
The trade in illicit drugs arguably carries the largest societal, political and economic consequences in many areas. It threatens the fabric of societies through addiction, crime, and disease. In the recent past infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, Swine Flu-H1N1 pandemics and Ebola Virus have shown the capacity to detrimentally affect the security and well-being of all members of society and all aspects of the economy.
Soon after signing the CPA several dozens armed groups were in existence and indulged in killing, abduction, and extortion posed serious cross-border challenges. The proliferation of small arms and light weapons across the open border is being the biggest threat to the country and postured serious challenges to the overall security environment of the country and severely weaken the law and order situation.
Nepal can cope up with internal and external adverse effects of natural disasters through technological advancement, building sustainable infrastructure and increased disaster preparedness. Expanding and enhancing the information and knowledge system on climate change, as well as mapping vulnerabilities, trends in internal migration and the incidence of disease can help create adaptive measures for reducing the effects of climate change. Improving the combating quality of security forces with advanced training and technology because with the access to nanotechnologies, cloud computing and the rise of internet use is opening new avenues of cyber security challenges are emerging. Use of intersection of technology, data and media can help to condense activities of violent non-state actors are becoming challenging for security forces.
However, the lack of relevant policies, political stability, politically eroded efficacies of security agencies, impunity and lack of transitional justice; natural calamities and financial irregularities are major problems. According to Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA); highway obstruction for minor reasons, the clash between the party youth organizations, miserable jail conditions, domestic and gender-based violence, messy immigration system, refugee issues and cross-broader crimes are the main challenges to be handled by Armed Police Force and Nepal Police together in cooperation. Establishing and implementation of duties of the federal setup of all government institutions and security forces will take a due time while there are possibilities of the rise of internal challenges while declaring provincial capitals, demarcation of the province and their electoral constituencies, use of natural resources i.e. river and mines illustrates upsurge of conflicts. Spreading of secessionist idea and identity issue in different parts of the country seems big challenges in the days to come for security institutions.