Cyber Security is about protecting (and recovering) networks, devices and programs from any type of cyber or digital attack. Cyberattacks are an evolving security threat to organizations, employees, consumers and governments at large. They are normally designed to access or destroy sensitive data or extort money, or interrupting normal business processes. Implementing effective cybersecurity measures is particularly challenging today because there are more devices than people, and attackers are becoming more innovative. It is therefore, cybersecurity is a continuously changing field, the development of technologies is opening up new avenues for cyberattacks.
Cyber Security in Nepal involve various actions and reparations of practices are due to lack of proper policy and awareness people are falling victim to various externalities. Victims in many cases fail to report it and when they do report concern authorities, due to lack of significant skills and technology, finds it difficult to address the incidents. Nepal do have a national cyber law called Electronic Transaction Act (ETA) 2063, but due to lack of necessary amendments it fails to deal with newly evolving cybercrimes. The internet is changing at a rapid rate and so is the way people consume information. The lack of proper updates in the ETA has caused the formation of loopholes gradually which can be exploited by criminals. Also, the ICT industry in Nepal is generally limited within the complexity of business and limited stakeholder where the government and regulator fail to recognize civil society and user groups as the stakeholder.
Related with cyber space, internet governance is a vast regime which incorporates not only pure technical area of ICT, but also policy making, economy and business, socio-cultural dimensions, including data protection, privacy and laws. The question of who governs and manages the internet is a policy level issue while how the internet functions is a pure technical aspect. Internet governance is the best tool to augment the e-governance, which is chiefly the paper-less delivery of service by governments or any organizations to their customers, and service seekers. In Nepal, internet penetration has already reached over 35 percent in January 2020 (source: https://datareportal.com) and it is incremental. Now, the time has come for Nepali policy makers, technologists, internet users and customers, government and private sectors, civil society, internet advocates, legal practitioners, development workers to begin the discussion and take actions to make internet safe, secured, accessible, resilient and trustworthy.
Hence, for strengthening the cybersecurity in Nepal, the guidelines governing the data protection, intellectual property, privacy, cybercrime and cyber terrorism should be established and revised in the judicial body. Cooperation and collaboration between government, private sectors and academia is important to boost internet governance in the country
Some major cyber securities related issues are listed below: