As Nepal lies between two emerging world powers, China and India, it has geostrategic and geopolitical importance at the global level. The traditional concept of security is broadened gradually to include human security concerns. Issues like arms proliferation, extremism, energy security, climate change, migration, gender, food, identity, border management, pandemics, and terrorism etc., are securitized. Globalization has given new momentum and its impact has complicated all new dimensions of security at the same point in time.
Security sector governance has become a prominent issue in the post-conflict scenario of any nation. National security does not depend only on the military, however; reforms of law enforcement agencies will be equally necessary with state restructuring. As Nepal passes through a prolonged political transition of seven decades and has now entered into a new arrangement of Federal Democratic Republic system after promulgation of new constitution need to focus on the systems, processes, and institutions that reinforce democratic security sector governance in line with federal set up.As part of larger security sector reform process after Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA), many changes have taken place for all the security organs. At present all existing security institutions, Nepalese Army (NP), Armed Police Force (APF), Nepal Police (NP) and National Investigation Department (NID) have become pertinent to deal with larger security problems and challenges posed in Nepalese society while implementing federalization and dealing with the identity politics. Setting up of seven provincial police institutions, intelligence set up, the new command structure of Nepalese Army and Armed Police Force streaming the new constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal promulgated in 2015. However, coordination among existing security institutions is a top priority of any nation-state during the transition but the overlapping of mandate creates misunderstanding amongst them. Meanwhile, policy makers need to address these confusions to deal security challenges (both internal and external) in the proper and balanced way.